The Great Storm’s lessons in nature

In October 1987 a weather report told us not to worry, no hurricane was on the way. It was gravely wrong and the worst storm for 300 years hit the UK. Winds of up to 122 mph swept across southern England and the Midlands; landing in Cornwall and leaving via the Wash, Norfolk. It infamously became known as the ‘Great Storm’.

Fallen trees

Around 15 million mature trees were ripped from the ground as hurricane winds caused carnage across the landscape. They decimated woods, parks and gardens; blocked roads and smashed cars; ripped roofs from buildings; killed 18 people; left millions of homes and buildings without electricity and water; and cost the British insurance industry more money than any event before or since.

Forty one Woodland Trust woods sustained significant damage, including Blean Woods and Ashenbank in Kent (both Sites of Special Scientific Interest), Tyrrels Wood in Norfolk, and America Wood on the Isle of Wight.

Clive Steward, now a Woodland Trust Site Manager for South East England, had then been working for forestry company Tilhill for just a month. ‘For me it was a baptism by fire,’ he says. ‘I remember waking in the middle of the night and hearing lots of glass breaking, and tiles sliding off the roof and smashing. The next morning I left for work at 7.30 on a drive that would normally take half an hour and eventually got there at around 3pm. In places, every other tree seemed to be down. I edged the car along lanes festooned with frayed green leaves, dodging fallen power lines and tilting tree trunks, and waited while great hulks were cleared off the road. Along the route, marooned householders were trying to cut their way out beyond the thickets of this strange new world. When I finally reached the office, some of my older, more experienced colleagues were in tears, seeing their life’s work in ruins.’

In the aftermath people began clearing and tidying some of the woods; removing the fallen trees, scrapping off the topsoil which was full of seedlings and replanting. Looking back many see this as a mistake, for those woods that were left to their own devises have thrived and recovered far quicker.

Oak seedling

The next spring of the fallen trees that were left with roots still in the ground, many sprang back into life sending up shoots from the horizontal trunks. Openings in the previously closed tree canopy prompted a surge of seedling and wildflower growth on the woodland floor and rotting trunks. This in turn benefitted many insect and bird species. The increase in deadwood was also good for saproxylics like stag beetles, while the whole process increased the overall structural diversity of the woods, creating a whole suite of niches for flora and fauna to colonise. For example, noctule bats roost in holes in trees, so benefitted from the damage to standing trees caused by the storm.

The storm changed English woodland and the way many conservationists approached its management. For centuries humans interacted with the woodland around them: coppicing, felling trees, grazing animals and other activities. These actions and those of natural herbivorous grazers maintained an open canopy and diverse structure. As people moved away from woodland use and large herbivores were lost from the landscape, the woods became more uniform, neglected and shady, having a negative effect on a great number of flora and fauna. Although it must be noted that some species still require less managed, stable conditions.

The great storm reopened the woods and encouraged bolder management. Many ecological lessons can be learnt from it, including:

  • Tree communities with a diversity of age ranges survived better.
  • Mature trees with hollowing heartwood were as strong and often stronger than younger trees.
  • Trees with spreading roots fared best.
  • Many species subsequently flourished in the lighter, open canopy woods.
  • Disturbance can create important niches.

The Great Storm is a kind of once in 200 year event. But, as climate change increases, freak weather is predicted more frequently. We need to help our woods and trees adapt to and survive this; by increasing age and structural diversity, and improving woodland connectivity.

Kay Haw, Assistant Conservation Adviser

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About Kay Haw

Assistant Conservation Adviser, Woodland Trust. Nature is my passion, especially woods and trees which are just amazing elements of life. One day (soon) I hope we humans learn to work in harmony with Mother Earth.
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8 Responses to The Great Storm’s lessons in nature

  1. Pingback: After the Storm – A Transient Art Project | Creative STAR Learning | I'm a teacher, get me OUTSIDE here!

  2. My passion for phenology encompasses this close appreciation of the natural environment and the way that climate impacts upon it. Yes, the loss of life and misery caused by the Great Storm is not what I would wish to see but in all its guises, the UK’s weather is probably one of the most diverse on the globe. I often despair at the way; our weather is portrayed, within the media, especially when it gets in the way of personal activities. Let us admire our climate as it makes the UK the place it is today. I don’t believe the next almighty storm will be such a bad thing after all, having read about all the good that can come out of it of these wonderful natural events.

    • Kay Haw says:

      Thanks very much for your comment Tony. The UK does indeed have some incredibly diverse weather, it certainly makes life interesting.

  3. Pingback: The Great Storm’s lessons in nature | 100 Acre Wood | Scoop.it

  4. thehutts says:

    People should remember that it was the old hollowed out trees that withstood the storm and not remove them for health and safety reasons. I was saddened when a local Park took out one of these old trees that provided hours of hide and seek amusement for walkers with young children.
    I have also been lucky to see some amazing old trees whilst working on habitat surveys of farms this summer – an old fallen, but still very much alive, Cherry tree with a birch tree growing out of it’s horizontal trunk sticks in my mind.

    • Kay Haw says:

      Thank you for your comment. It does show that our veteran/ancient trees need greater protection. They have survived many storms and are amazingly diverse habitats for wildlife.

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